Greece: (Late Hellenism)
c. 4050 - 4197 AM [Chart]
c. 170 - 27 BC [Chart]
The Antigonid Kingdom, one of the three main Hellenistic powers (see chart for Early Hellenism), virtually disappeared after the reign of Perseus ended in c.168 BC.
Late Hellenism sees the two remaining Hellenistic powers - the Seleucid Kingdom and the Ptolemiac Dynasty in Egypt - as the remaining Greek influence. A rising force, however, is the Roman Republic. During this period, Rome was initially more concerned with acquiring areas on the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean, along with its islands. For a long time the Roman Republic was embroiled in consecutive wars, known collectively as the Punic Wars. However, with the appearance of Julius Caesar and Pompey, Rome turned to acquiring territory to the east and southeast of the Mediterranean - most notably in Egypt.