The Exodus and the Judges
2729 - c. 3172 AM [Chart]
1495 - c. 1052 BC [Chart]
Exodus & Arrival in Canaan
Twelve Tribes of Israel
1 Samuel 1 - 7
The nation of Israel began with the person called Israel (Jacob). While Joseph was in a position of authority in Egypt, Jacob and the rest of his family moved there. As relatives of Joseph, Jacob and his family was honoured and well treated in Egypt.
However, after the deaths of these original settlers, this prosperous situation did not remain. The Israelites (as they came to be known) grew in number until they represented a sizeable portion of Egypt's population. Towards the end of the Israelite's time in Egypt they were treated as slaves. Some people speculate that Israelite labour was used in building the pyramids.
According to the Biblical account, the period of time from Jacob's entry into Egypt and the Israelites Exodus from Egypt was 430 years (Exodus 12:40). This Exodus was lead by Moses, an Israelite who became the adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter. Two main events associated with the Exodus were the 10 Plagues and the crossing of the Red Sea.
After the Exodus, the Israelites camped at Mt Sinai, where they received the 10 Commandments. They remained there for a couple of years, then moved on to where Canaan meets the desert. 12 men were sent to explore the Canaan. When they returned 40 days later they gave a favourable account of the lands produce, but were fearful of its inhabitants. As a result, the Israelites complained to God, wishing they were back in Egypt. As a result, God pronounced punishment on the people of Israel, declaring that they would have 40 years of wilderness wandering before he would allow them to enter Canaan - 1 year for every day the 12 Explorers were in Canaan. (This punishment was backdated so as to include the 2 years they had already spent in the desert.)
After the Israelites finally entered Canaan, it took them approximately 7 years to overthrow the majority of the Lands kingdoms and establish their own tribal nation. From that time on until the establishment of kings (approx 250 - 300 years) Israel progressed through alternating periods of prosperity and captivity / bondage.